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CIPS L4M5 Exam Syllabus Topics:

Topic 1
  • Team management and the influence of stakeholders in negotiations
  • Definitions of commercial negotiation
Topic 2
  • Macroeconomics and its influence on commercial negotiations
  • Contrast the economic factors that impact on commercial negotiations
Topic 3
  • Setting objectives and defining the variables for a commercial negotiation
  • Use of telephone, teleconferencing or web based meetings
Topic 4
  • Organisational power: comparing the relative power of purchasers and suppliers
  • Explain how the balance of power in commercial negotiations can affect outcomes
Topic 5
  • Understand key approaches in the negotiation of commercial agreements with external organisations
  • Sources of conflict that can arise in the work of procurement and supply
Topic 6
  • How behaviours should change during the different stages of a negotiation
  • Compare the key communication skills that help achieve desired outcomes
Topic 7
  • Analyse the application of commercial negotiations in the work of procurement and supply
  • Negotiation in relation to the stages of the sourcing process
Topic 8
  • How purchasers can improve leverage with suppliers
  • The importance of power in commercial negotiations
Topic 9
  • Analyse how to assess the process and outcomes of negotiations to inform future practice
  • Protecting relationships after the negotiation
Topic 10
  • Identify the different types of relationships that impact on commercial negotiations
  • Pragmatic and principled styles of negotiation
Topic 11
  • Differentiate between the types of approaches that can be pursued in commercial negotiations
  • Distributive win-lose, distributive approaches to negotiation
Topic 12
  • Costing methods such as absorption, marginal or variable and activity based costing
  • Know how to prepare for negotiations with external organisations

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CIPS Commercial Negotiation Sample Questions (Q46-Q51):

Which of the following are recognised techniques in contract negotiation? Select THREE that apply.

  • A. Role ethics
  • B. Pacing and leading
  • C. Anchoring
  • D. Framing and reframing
  • E. Ratification
  • F. Validation

Answer: B,C,D

The question asks about negotiation techniques which are not present in the book. In this question, there are only 3 recognised techniques:
- Framing and reframing: A frame is an assumption, or set of assumptions, that guides our attention and behavior. Reframing is the ability to identify and significantly change assumptions or perspectives. Framing has a significant impact on the effectiveness of negotiation outcomes and negotiator working relationships.
You can read more on framing and reframing here.
- Anchoring: Anchoring bias is well-known cognitive bias in negotiation and in other contexts. The anchoring bias describes the common tendency to give too much weight to the first number put forth in a discussion and then inadequately adjust from that starting point, or the "anchor." We even fixate on anchors when we know they are irrelevant to the discussion at hand. You can read more on anchoring here.
- Pacing and leading: Pacing and leading is a two-step lever of persuasion. First - You "match your pace" to the person you want to influence in as many ways as possible. You can do this by mimicking the way the person talks, stands, their appearance, etc. You can also mimic less tangible aspects like the way they act, or their emotional state.Second - Once you've set your pace with someone, lead them to whatever decision or behavior you want them to take! You can read more on pacing and leading here.

End users are the only stakeholders that are involved in the preparation of a negotiation. Is this statement true?

  • A. Yes, because only end-users understand their demand
  • B. Yes, because end-users have greaterexpert power
  • C. No, because end-users are external stakeholders
  • D. No, because budget holders also play an important role

Answer: D

Commercial negotiation objectives should bedriven by the business needs of the organisation. Organisations are made up of different stakeholder groups, some of whom may have different, even conflicting objectives.
From a negotiation perspective, stakeholders can be defined as persons or groups thathave interest (or stake) in the outcome of the negotiation you are leading or participating in.
CIPS distinguishes between 3 sets of stakeholders:
- Internal stakeholders
- Connected stakeholders
- External stakeholders
End-users are examples of internalstakeholders. They are the people who will benefit from the purchase of a product or service. However, their interest may conflict with other groups, i.e. the budget controllers whose objective is minimising the expense. In negotiation perspective, procurement should involve different groups of stakeholder.
LO 1, AC 1.1

According French and Raven's base model, which of the following are sources of personal power that can be used in commercial negotiation? Select THREE that apply.

  • A. Coercive power
  • B. Legitimate power
  • C. Purchasing spend power
  • D. Trademark power
  • E. Expert power
  • F. Competitive power

Answer: A,B,E

A useful model of personal power that has survived the test of time and provide a simple way to analyse negotiation in French and Raven's Power BaseModel, which describes six bases of power:
Diagram Description automatically generated

Under EU public procurement directives, which of the following are procedures in which there is no commercial negotiation allowed?

  • A. Open Procedure
  • B. Competitive Procedure with Negotiation
  • C. Competitive Dialogue
  • D. Restricted Procedure
  • E. Innovation Partnerships

Answer: A,D

Under the European Union public procurement directives, all public sector bodies must abide by certain rules when they procure goods and services over a threshold value. Theserules are codified under 5 procurement procedures:
1. Open Procedure
2. Restricted Procedure
3. Competitive Dialogue
4. Competitive Procedure with Negotiation
5. Innovation Partnerships.
Under normal circumstances, there is no commercialnegotiation allowed under the two most commonly used procedure, Open and Restricted. Under these procedures, the prices and terms and conditions of contract should be decided via reference only to the tenderers' responses to the buyer's requests for tenders, and not through 'post-tender negotiation'. Under the other procedure, negotiation within the rules is permitted.
Interested learners can read more about these procedures here.
LO 1, AC 1.1

When prices of input materials increase, supply curve shifts to the left while demand remains stable. The shift of supply will tend to cause which of the following?

  • A. A decrease in the equilibrium price and quantity
  • B. An increase in the equilibrium price and a decrease inthe equilibrium quantity
  • C. A decrease in the equilibrium price and an increase in the equilibrium quantity
  • D. An increase in the equilibrium price and quantity

Answer: B

The case in the question is illustrated as below:
Diagram Description automatically generated
The equilibrium price initially at P0 with quantity Q0, when supply curve shifts to the left, it will converge with demand curve at new equilibrium pointwith price P1 and quantity Q1. As you can see from the graph, P1 is greater than P0 and Q1 is smaller than Q0.


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