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Download CIPS Commercial Contracting Exam Dumps

Which of the following is an invitation to treat?

  • A. Tender bid
  • B. Invoice
  • C. Price list
  • D. Purchase order

Answer: C

An invitation to treat is an action inviting other parties to make an offer to form a contract. These actions may sometimes appear to be offers themselves, and the difference can sometimes be difficult to determine. The distinction is important because accepting an offer creates a binding contract while "accepting" an invitation to treat is actually making an offer.
One simple test to distinguish an offer and an invitation to treat is to ask what this statement will become when it is accepted. Now we apply this test to four options:
- Tender bid: Tender bid is submitted by a supplier to an invitation to tender from the buyer. It states the specific quantity, price and other elements. If buyer accepts the bid, there will be a contract between them. Therefore, a tender bid is an offer.
- Purchase order: Purchase order which is sent by a buyer will state the items, the quantity, the price and terms and conditions. If supplier accepts the purchase order, there will also be a contract between two parties. It is also an offer.
- Price list: Price list is prepared by a supplier. The price list often states the items and unit price. If a buyer accepts it, the contract has not yet been formed since the contract scope has not yet been decided. It is an invitation to treat.
- Invoice: Invoice is often sent after a contract is formed. It is in fact a request for payment, neither offer nor invitation to treat.
- CIPS study guide page 29-32
- What Is an Invitation to Treat?
LO 1, AC 1.1


If service level agreement is used as a schedule that makes up the contract, it will be most likely to be a part of...?

  • A. Specifications
  • B. Performance management framework
  • C. Exclusion of liabilities
  • D. Pricing arrangement

Answer: B

If a service level agreement is used as a schedule to a contract, it will generally have the following contents:
- Service definitions. If the service information is provided by the specification, SLA should only refer to the specification to avoid any inconsistencies.
- Details on how to measure KPIs, who will measure KPIs
- Minimum requirements or targets
- Remedies if the minimum requirements are not met
Since SLA often lists out the KPI targets, consequences for not meeting the KPI targets and remedies to situation of poor performance, it is a part of performance management.
LO 2, AC 2.2


Which of the following should be done by procurement professionals right after obtaining a pre-written specification for a critical item so that the added value will be the greatest?

  • A. Evaluate tender or quotation
  • B. Challenge the used specification
  • C. Select the best supplier
  • D. Issue invitation to tender or request for quotation

Answer: B

A previously used specification must always be robustly challenged to see how well it fits the proposed circumstances. Aspects which appear not to fit should be analysed to understand why they were included in the sample specification and whether this changes the view on whether or not they should be omitted or changed.
LO 2, AC 2.1


Which of the following regulates barriers to the trade of goods between Member States of WTO?

  • A. CISG
  • B. GATT
  • C. TRIPS
  • D. NAFTA

Answer: B

- The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."
- CISG is the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. This is a voluntary treaty under United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The purpose of the Vienna Convention is to set out a framework for international transactions based on a uniform approach. It establishes substantive rules that regulate the duties and obligations of both parties, including the delivery of goods, contract formation, and remedies for breach of contract.
- The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It sets down minimum standards for the regulation by national governments of many forms of intellectual property (IP) as applied to nationals of other WTO member nations.
- The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de America del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-echange nord-americain, ALeNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
LO 1, AC 1.3


Social and environmental criteria are often incorporated into which of the following type of specification?

  • A. Conformance specification
  • B. Technical specification
  • C. Output specification
  • D. Design specification

Answer: C

Developing and using generic specifications is as import in the sustainable procurement process as it is in the traditional procurement process. During this stage, human/labour rights and environmental performance criteria should be translated into specifications that meet specific requirements of the specified outcome, desired by the procurement action.
The specification stage is key to all types of contract. Building in environmental and social considerations at this early stage, provides a clear indication to suppliers that sustainability is important to the UN organization. Consider available alternatives which are less environmentally and socially damaging. Consider all the phases of a product's life cycle (e.g. production, transportation, maintenance, disposal, etc) when determining its cost and environmental impact. Assess the overall environmental and social integrity of suppliers by looking at their policies and practices.
Specifications which are output-based rather than input-based can increase supplier innovation, reduce waste and minimise harmful social and environmental impacts.
- Sustainable Procurement
- CIPS study guide page 95-99
LO 2, AC 2.1