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in this attack, an adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key. This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. When the victim reinstall the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number and receive packet number are reset to their initial values. What is this attack called?

  • A. KRACK
  • B. Chop chop attack
  • C. Evil twin
  • D. Wardriving

Answer: A

In this attack KRACK is an acronym for Key Reinstallation Attack. KRACK may be a severe replay attack on Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol (WPA2), which secures your Wi-Fi connection. Hackers use KRACK to take advantage of a vulnerability in WPA2. When in close range of a possible victim, attackers can access and skim encrypted data using KRACK.
How KRACK Works
Your Wi-Fi client uses a four-way handshake when attempting to attach to a protected network. The handshake confirms that both the client - your smartphone, laptop, et cetera - and therefore the access point share the right credentials, usually a password for the network. This establishes the Pairwise passkey (PMK), which allows for encoding . Overall, this handshake procedure allows for quick logins and connections and sets up a replacement encryption key with each connection. this is often what keeps data secure on Wi-Fi connections, and every one protected Wi-Fi connections use the four-way handshake for security. This protocol is that the reason users are encouraged to use private or credential-protected Wi-Fi instead of public connections. KRACK affects the third step of the handshake, allowing the attacker to control and replay the WPA2 encryption key to trick it into installing a key already in use. When the key's reinstalled, other parameters related to it - the incremental transmit packet number called the nonce and therefore the replay counter - are set to their original values. Rather than move to the fourth step within the four-way handshake, nonce resets still replay transmissions of the third step. This sets up the encryption protocol for attack, and counting on how the attackers replay the third-step transmissions, they will take down Wi-Fi security.
Why KRACK may be a Threat
Think of all the devices you employ that believe Wi-Fi. it isn't almost laptops and smartphones; numerous smart devices now structure the web of Things (IoT). due to the vulnerability in WPA2, everything connected to Wi-Fi is in danger of being hacked or hijacked. Attackers using KRACK can gain access to usernames and passwords also as data stored on devices. Hackers can read emails and consider photos of transmitted data then use that information to blackmail users or sell it on the Dark Web. Theft of stored data requires more steps, like an HTTP content injection to load malware into the system. Hackers could conceivably take hold of any device used thereon Wi-Fi connection. Because the attacks require hackers to be on the brink of the target, these internet security threats could also cause physical security threats. On the opposite hand, the necessity to be in close proximity is that the only excellent news associated with KRACK, as meaning a widespread attack would be extremely difficult. Victims are specifically targeted. However, there are concerns that a experienced attacker could develop the talents to use HTTP content injection to load malware onto websites to make a more widespread affect.
Everyone is in danger from KRACK vulnerability. Patches are available for Windows and iOS devices, but a released patch for Android devices is currently in question (November 2017). There are issues with the discharge , and lots of question if all versions and devices are covered. The real problem is with routers and IoT devices. These devices aren't updated as regularly as computer operating systems, and for several devices, security flaws got to be addressed on the manufacturing side. New devices should address KRACK, but the devices you have already got in your home probably aren't protected.
The best protection against KRACK is to make sure any device connected to Wi-Fi is patched and updated with the newest firmware. that has checking together with your router's manufacturer periodically to ascertain if patches are available.
The safest connection option may be a private VPN, especially when publicly spaces. If you would like a VPN for private use, avoid free options, as they need their own security problems and there'll even be issues with HTTPs. Use a paid service offered by a trusted vendor like Kaspersky. Also, more modern networks use WPA3 for better security. Avoid using public Wi-Fi, albeit it's password protection. That password is out there to almost anyone, which reduces the safety level considerably. All the widespread implications of KRACK and therefore the WPA2 vulnerability aren't yet clear. what's certain is that everybody who uses Wi-Fi is in danger and wishes to require precautions to guard their data and devices.


Jason, an attacker, targeted an organization to perform an attack on its Internet-facing web server with the intention of gaining access to backend servers, which are protected by a firewall. In this process, he used a URL https://xyz.com/feed.php?url:externaIsile.com/feed/to to obtain a remote feed and altered the URL input to the local host to view all the local resources on the target server. What is the type of attack Jason performed In the above scenario?

  • A. Server-side request forgery (SSRF) attack
  • B. web cache poisoning attack
  • C. Web server misconfiguration
  • D. website defacement

Answer: A

Server-side request forgery (also called SSRF) is a net security vulnerability that allows an assaulter to induce the server-side application to make http requests to associate arbitrary domain of the attacker's choosing.
In typical SSRF examples, the attacker might cause the server to make a connection back to itself, or to other web-based services among the organization's infrastructure, or to external third-party systems.
Another type of trust relationship that often arises with server-side request forgery is where the application server is able to interact with different back-end systems that aren't directly reachable by users. These systems typically have non-routable private informatics addresses. Since the back-end systems normally ordinarily protected by the topology, they typically have a weaker security posture. In several cases, internal back-end systems contain sensitive functionality that may be accessed while not authentication by anyone who is able to act with the systems.
In the preceding example, suppose there's an body interface at the back-end url Here, an attacker will exploit the SSRF vulnerability to access the executive interface by submitting the following request:
POST /product/stock HTTP/1.0
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 118


What is the proper response for a NULL scan if the port is closed?

  • A. ACK
  • B. PSH
  • C. No response
  • D. SYN
  • E. FIN
  • F. RST

Answer: F


if you send a TCP ACK segment to a known closed port on a firewall but it does not respond with an RST. what do you know about the firewall you are scanning?

  • A. It is a stateful firewall
  • B. There is no firewall in place.
  • C. This event does not tell you encrypting about the firewall.
  • D. It Is a non-stateful firewall.

Answer: C


E-mail scams and mail fraud are regulated by which of the following?

  • A. 18 U.S.C. par. 1029 Fraud and Related activity in connection with Access Devices
  • B. 18 U.S.C. par. 1362 Communication Lines, Stations, or Systems
  • C. 18 U.S.C. par. 2510 Wire and Electronic Communications Interception and Interception of Oral Communication
  • D. 18 U.S.C. par. 1030 Fraud and Related activity in connection with Computers

Answer: D



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