Although natural bitumen has many applications, road construction and maintenance account for over 90% of total demand, whether directly or indirectly through asphalt.
The three fundamental types used in road applications are bitumen emulsions, bitumen reducers, and paving grades.

Bitumen should be reduced.
Cutback bitumen is used in the construction and maintenance of bitumen roads in cold climates.

Distillates used in the production of reduced bitumen include naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and furnace oil. Reduced bitumen is available in several forms, including fast cure (RC), medium cure (MC), and delayed cure (DC) (SC).

RC is recommended for surface treatment and forming. It is recommended to premix MC with a small amount of fine aggregate. SC is used to pre-mix a large quantity of fine aggregate.

This type of bitumen is known as penetration-grade bitumen. This type of bitumen is temporarily rendered less viscous by the addition of volatile oils.

The volatiles vanishes after application, restoring the bitumen to its original viscosity. Bitumen meant for penetration is thermoplastic.

When laying the material in construction zones or prepping the surface, it should be liquid.

The material must also regain its previous hardness and properties after installation. To guarantee this, the bitumen is lowered.

By increasing the temperature, bitumen can be made more fluid. Reduced bitumen is used when it is critical to achieving fluidity at low temperatures during surface coating.
The volatile oil has been diluted and added to.
2. Bitumen Emulsion

Bitumen is suspended in an aqueous medium in finely divided form and fixed by a suitable ingredient to produce bitumen emulsions, which are liquid products.

Cationic emulsions are commonly utilized in India. The emulsion is composed of approximately 60% bitumen and 40% water.

After being exposed to the elements, the emulsion degrades, releasing water, and the mixture begins to harden. The amount of time it takes to cure is determined by the quality of the bitumen.

Bituminous emulsion viscosity can be calculated using IS: 8887-1995.

Bitumen emulsions are classified into three types: fast cure (RS), medium cure (MS), and slow cure (SC) (SC).

Bitumen emulsions are great binders for uphill road construction. places where heating bitumen or aggregates is difficult

Quickfix emulsion is used for surface coating. Emulsions with a medium setting are ideal for pre-mixing and patch repair. Slow emulsions are ideal when it rains.

This bitumen separates into two immiscible liquid phases, resulting in a two-phase system. One of them dissolves microspheres in the other liquid.

A bituminous emulsion is formed when discrete bituminous pellets are dispersed in a continuous form of water.

It is a mixture of penetrating-grade bitumen for laying.

Bitumen pellets are disseminated in long-chain hydrocarbon emulsions with cationic or anionic ends. This emulsion creates an electrochemical environment.

Water is drawn to the ionic component of the chain, while bitumen is drawn to the hydrocarbon component.

The following factors influence emulsion stability:

Types and quantities of bitumen emulsifier
Evaporation rate of water
The amount of bitumen
Kinetic forces of bitumen globules
Emulsions are delivered by nebulizer. The main problem is viscosity. As the bitumen content increases, the mixture thickens and becomes more viscous. This was discovered to be sensitive above 60% volume.